The "Elements" of Euclid (4th century BCE) was the most influential work of classical mathematics in the medieval world, widely studied by Byzantine, Islamic, and later European scholars. It was several times translated into Arabic; this manuscript is the version of Ishaq ibn Hunayn (died c. 910), revised by Thabit ibn Qurrah (died 901).
In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries many Arabic versions of Greek mathematical books were translated into Hebrew. This manuscript contains the Hebrew translation completed in 1270 by Moses ibn Tibbon (active in Provence, 1240–83).
In the twelfth century the Arabic text of Euclid’s "Elements" was translated into Latin (though a Latin translation direct from the Greek already existed). Versions are ascribed to Herman of Carinthia, Adelard of Bath, and Gerard of Cremona. The many different renderings were reworked numerous times, together with detailed annotations and commentaries by generations of scholars.