The rotulus, a roll with text written from top to bottom, is a form taken by books before the invention of the codex. Long after codices replaced rolls, the format continued to be used for the copying of Hebrew liturgical compositions, as here. Jews, who seem to have adopted the codex late, made rotuli until at least the thirteenth century. The text on each side of this example is written in a different hand, as a rotulus was often reused.
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