Polyglot Bibles, presenting the text in more than one language, became popular in the sixteenth century. This edition of the Psalms was compiled by the Dominican scholar Agostino Giustiniani. It was in the collection of Ingram Bywater (1840–1914), the Bodleian’s Sub-Librarian and Regius Professor of Greek at Oxford. Here, Psalm 1 appears in columns from left to right: first is the Hebrew text, followed by Giustiniani’s Latin translation, then the Latin Vulgate, the Greek Septuagint text, an Arabic version, and the Aramaic "targum" (a translation with commentary from the Hebrew) with its Latin translation, and finally Giustiniani’s own commentary, in Latin, at far right.
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